Perform tests on whole blood, serum, plasma, or urine samples
to determine concentrations of analytes (e.g., cholesterol,
electrolytes, glucose, calcium), to provide certain hematology
values (e.g., hemoglobin concentrations, prothrombin times),
and to assay certain therapeutic drugs (e.g., theophylline),
which helps diagnose and treat numerous diseases, including
diabetes, cancer, HIV, STD, hepatitis, kidney conditions, fertility,and thyroid problems.
Chemistry analyzers can be benchtop devices or placed on a cart;other systems require floor space. They are used to determine the concentration of certain metabolites, electrolytes, proteins,and/or drugs in samples of serum, plasma, urine, cerebrospinal fluid, and/or other body fl uids. Samples are inserted in a slot or loaded onto a tray, and tests are programmed via a keypad or bar-code scanner. Reagents may be stored within the analyzer,and it may require a water supply to wash internal parts. Results are displayed on a screen, and typically there are ports to connect to a printer and/or computer.
After the tray is loaded with samples, a pipette aspirates a precisely measured aliquot of sample and discharges it into the reaction vessel; a measured volume of diluent rinses the pipette. Reagents are dispensed into the reaction vessel. After the solution is mixed (and incubated, if necessary), it is either passed through a colorimeter, which measures its absorbance while it is still in its reaction vessel, or aspirated into a fl ow cell, where its absorbance is measured by a flow-through colorimeter. The analyzer then calculates the analyte’s chemical concentrations.
The operator loads sample tubes into the analyzer; reagents may need to be loaded or may already be stored in the instrument. A bar-code scanner will read the test orders off the label on each test tube, or the operator may have to program the desired tests. After the required test(s) are run, the results can be displayed on-screen, printed out, stored in the analyzer’s internal memory.
Operators should be aware of the risk of exposure to potentially infectious bloodborne pathogens during testing procedures and should use universal precautions, including wearing gloves, face shields or masks, and gowns.
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